The French proposer and the English to propose can be quite similar.
In formal English
- To put forward a plan or proposal: The committee proposed a new agreement. → Le comité a proposé un nouvel accord.
- We proposed Ms Smith as Chair / Chairperson / Chairwoman. → Nous avons proposé Mme Smith en tant que Présidente.
In casual or neutral English
However, note the difference in non-academic use:
- Je lui ai proposé d’aller boire un café. → I asked him out for coffee.
If we want to be more articulate, we might say, I invited him for a coffee. / I suggested we meet over/for a coffee.
Other examples of ask:
- I asked my in-laws to dinner.
- I asked her round for a drink. (to my house, to the place where the speaker is)
- He’d like to ask her out, but she is elusive, and he never manages to catch her.
In short, ask is a better choice in the spoken language, while propose sounds stilted, or too serious. In formal language, policy, and academic language, propose is appropriate.